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Gradually the Chinese kilns recovered, and by about 1740 the first period of Japanese export porcelain had all but ceased.

Partly as a result of the work of Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles however, an early example of industrial spying in which the details of Chinese porcelain manufacture were transmitted to Europe, Chinese exports of porcelain soon shrank considerably, especially by the end of the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

In the 1640s, rebellions in China and wars between the Ming dynasty and the Manchus damaged many kilns, and in 1656–1684 the new Qing dynasty government stopped trade by closing its ports.

Chinese exports almost ceased and other sources were needed to fulfill the continuing Eurasian demand for blue and white.

Various forms and decorations were highly influenced by China, but later developed its own forms and styles.

In this century a number of experiments were made combining underglaze blue and other colours, both underglaze and overglaze enamels.

The decoration is commonly applied by hand, originally by brush painting, but nowadays by stencilling or by transfer-printing, though other methods of application have also been used.

In Japan, Chinese potter refugees were able to introduce refined porcelain techniques and enamel glazes to the Arita kilns.

From 1658, the Dutch East India Company looked to Japan for blue-and-white porcelain to sell in Europe.

Blue and white decoration first became widely used in Chinese porcelain in the 14th century, after the cobalt pigment for the blue began to be imported from Persia.

It was widely exported, and inspired imitative wares in Islamic ceramics, and in Japan, and later European tin-glazed earthenware such as Delftware and after the techniques were discovered in the 18th century, European porcelain.

Production of blue and white wares has continued at Jingdezhen to this day.



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