Validating technique in psycohology
In boys, immoral behavior is regulated through the mechanism of castration anxiety – men obey the rules because of an unconscious fear that their father will take away their penis.
In the Freudian view, the girl has already had to accept her castration as a fait accompli, which raises important questions about the relative moral strength of men and women.
In order to fulfil its aspiration of explaining human thinking and behavior, psychology must address the huge diversity in people around the globe.
Each individual’s behavior is shaped by a huge number of factors, including there genes, their upbringing and individual experiences.
Therefore, stereotypically male and female characteristics may be emphasised.Judgements about an individual women’s ability are made on the basis of average differences between the sexes or biased sex-role stereotypes, and this also had the effect of lowering women’s self esteem; making them, rather than men, think they have to improve themselves (Tavris, 1993).Kohlberg based his stages of moral development around male moral reasoning and had an all-male sample.Suggest the impact that these research examples could have on society Freud and many of his followers believed that biological differences between men and women had major consequences for psychological development. Freud believed that gender divergence begins at the onset of the phallic stage, where the girl realises that she has no penis, and starts to feel inferior to boys (penis envy).
Penis envy becomes a major driving force in the girl’s mental life, and needs to be successfully sublimated into a desire for a husband and children if it is not to become pathological.
Beta bias -this occurs when the differences between men and women are minimised.